This phase was to develop the conceptual wellbeing domains of the outcomes framework (the draft outcomes framework).

What is a conceptual framework?

A conceptual framework sets out what wellbeing looks like for people and whānau of Aotearoa.

The conceptual framework has:

  • High-level outcomes
  • Descriptions of outcomes (what outcomes look like).

The data phase developed indicators to measure outcomes (how we measure and monitor wellbeing outcomes).

An example of a framework is the Child and Youth Wellbeing Strategy(external link).

How was the framework developed?

The framework was informed by:

Feedback on the framework

In August and September 2020, the Initial Commission asked people for feedback on the draft He Ara Oranga outcomes framework

To read a full summary of the feedback, download a copy of the summary report:

When the Initial Commission started this work, they wanted everyone to be able to have their say on how the system will monitor, measure and improve our country's mental health and wellbeing. However, due to COVID-19 they had to change their approach and target organisations that represent the people and diversity of Aotearoa New Zealand.

The consultation involved over 150 groups, organisations and individuals.

What the Initial Commission asked

The Initial Commission asked people the following questions:

What the Initial Commission heard

The overwhelming majority of the feedback was positive. Other feedback offered valuable suggestions about how to improve the framework. The Initial Commission used a strengths and solutions-focused approach to interpret and action the feedback.

The outcomes framework resonated well with most people, and the domains largely covered what wellbeing means. People supported the framework because it:

  • is inclusive and aspirational and takes a strengths-based approach
  • includes structural and systemic factors that impact on wellbeing
  • takes a broad and interconnected approach to understanding wellbeing, with relevance to mental health and addiction.

Some people suggested that the wellbeing approach may be too broad and less relevant to people living with severe mental health and addiction issues.

People also suggested clarifying the connection between the high-level domains and the detailed descriptors, including the distinction between wellbeing domains. Also, we heard that the final framework needed to be in plain and concise language.

The dual-layered framework

Many Māori and non-Māori respondents supported the layered approach because it gives Te Tiriti o Waitangi ‘its rightful mana and place and acknowledges the importance of Māori as tangata whenua and the Crown’s Treaty partner’.

The Initial Commission heard that more work was needed to show how the two layers relate to each other. Some saw the ‘for Māori as tangata whenua’ domains having universal applicability.

As one of the priority groups identified in the He Ara Oranga report, it was agreed that a Pacific example would be appropriate to develop in addition to the dual-layered framework. Pacific respondents said the Pacific example resonated more with them than the ‘for everyone’ outcomes framework. Key suggestions were to make more use of Pacific languages, use Pacific models in the descriptors, and make faith and spirituality more explicit throughout.

Particular groups and outcomes

The Initial Commission heard that there should be (stronger) reference in the framework to:

  • addiction, substance use and gambling harm
  • outcomes for people in acute mental distress or for those who had severe and enduring ill health
  • the unique mental health and wellbeing needs of infants, children and youth
  • outcomes for Asian communities, refugees, prisoners and their families, and the mental health and addiction workforce.

Implementation of the framework

Respondents had questions about how the framework would translate into outcomes and how this framework would work with others.

Concepts that were missing or needed greater prominence

Suggestions were made to refine the domain descriptors. For example, recognising colonisation and its impacts, the importance of te reo Māori in relation to wellbeing for Māori, peoples’ and communities’ expression of cultural values, spirituality and belonging, equity and safety, economic resources, and role of socio-economic deprivation.

The vision and principles

The vision of ‘Tū tangata mauri ora, flourishing together’ was generally supported as a suitable aspirational vision. However, some respondents felt that flourishing could mean different things for different people. Also, flourishing is something that individuals may not have personal control over.

Most respondents felt the principles were ‘mostly’ or ‘completely’ reflected in the draft outcomes framework. Some respondents provided suggestions about how the principles could be better reflected in the draft outcomes framework.

Draft outcomes framework

The six areas of wellbeing are overlapping and interconnected. The ‘for everyone’ and ‘for Māori as tangata whenua’ sections should not be read as direct translations. They represent related concepts of wellbeing from different world-views. ‘For everyone in Aotearoa’ also includes Māori.  Our vision: Tū tangata mauri ora, flourishing together.  This will be achieved when all tangata/people, whānau/families and hāpori/communities in Aotearoa...  For Māori as tangata whenua Whakaaetanga (acceptance) and manaakitanga (love and compassion) Whānau and communities are culturally strong and express and live awhi mai, awhi atu (reciprocal support); whānau thrive through the practical expression of ritenga Māori (Māori customary rituals), tikanga Māori (Māori philosophy and customary practices) and mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge).   Oranga (wellbeing) Whānau and communities enjoy pae ora (healthy futures) which includes wai Ora (healthy environments), mauri ora (healthy individuals) and whānau ora (healthy families).   Whānau and community hauora (health) needs are met, and unfair differences are eliminated. Equitable health outcomes are the norm as one enabler of pae ora.  Rangatiratanga (autonomy), mana motuhake (authority) and whakaute (respect) Whānau legal, human, cultural and other rights framed by Te Tiriti o Waitangi are protected and privileged. Rights are also recognised and framed by te ao Māori (the Māori world), which includes recognition and application of te ao Māori interpretations of Lore - intergenerational ‘tikanga’ (practices and behaviour) passed down by tupuna (ancestors).  Communities benefit from whānau rights being upheld.  Whanaungatanga (connection and belonging) Whānau thrive in environments of arohatanga (the practice of love); and enjoy the benefits of collective flourishing. This supports the best possible intergenerational kaupapa and whakapapa (genealogy) whānau, hāpori, hapū and iwi relationships.  Māori attain and maintain relationships, enabling kin and communities to strengthen ties between one another.  Unity through active whakawhanaungatanga is honoured.  Wairuatanga (spirituality) and manawaroa (resilience) The mauri (life-force) and wairua (spirit and essence) of tangata, whānau, hapū, hāpori and iwi is ever-increasing intergenerationally. Māori have a recognised sense of identity, uniqueness and belonging.  Taonga Māori are restored and Māori have a unique relationship and spiritual connection to the taiao (environment), their whenua (land), whakapapa (genealogy) and whānau.  Rangatiratanga (autonomy), mana motuhake (authority) and whakanuitanga (celebration and honouring) Māori exercise their authority and autonomy to flourish.  Whānau have hope and the resources they need to determine their own futures.  Māori can apply rangatiratanga in their communities, expressed through autonomy, leadership and participation.  For everyone in Aotearoa Are safe and nurtured People, families and communities are cohesive; they enjoy close, nurturing and caring relationships that are bound by kindness, respect and aroha (love).  People have a sense of security and belonging in a family and social group, and can form meaningful relationships. Where people experience disconnection, they are enabled to reconnect with themselves, their family, whānau and communities.  People and families feel secure, safe and accepted – individually and together - and live in, work in and visit safe, inclusive places.  People have the economic resources needed to provide for their children, grandchildren, and other dependants.  Are healthy People and families enjoy their best possible level of health and experience equity of health.  People and families have what they need to be healthy and feel supported to regain or retain their wellness across their life course.  This includes (amongst other things) access to healthy kai (food), healthy and safe homes, safe physical activity and economic security.  Communities are healthy places to live.  Have their rights and dignity upheld People and families have their rights upheld, and are treated with dignity and in ways that reflect a just and fair society.  People and families can fully participate in their communities and broader society and are able to live free from all forms of racism, stigma, discrimination, such as, homophobia, biphobia, transphobia, sexism, ableism, sanism, ageism and xenophobia.  Rights framed by Te Tiriti o Waitangi, other New Zealand law and international commitments are protected and privileged.  Are connected and contributing All people, families and communities are valued. People are able to contribute in meaningful ways to thriving communities, and be recognised for their contributions in their chosen roles across education, employment, volunteering, parenting and/or caregiving. Lifelong learning is a right not a privilege.  People and families are celebrated for their diversity and are connected to their culture, language, beliefs, religion and/or spirituality, which supports self-determined wellbeing. This includes the freedom to express and enjoy their identity in ways that are relevant and meaningful.  People and families experience connection to the natural world, and exercise kaitiakitanga (guardianship) to care for the environment for future generations.  Are resilient and can heal and grow People, families and communities are optimistic and resilient, and enjoy emotional wellbeing and freedom from addiction. They have the skills, knowledge and support they need to cope with and bounce back from adversity.  People and families are able to experience and manage a range of emotions, and experience growth and healing.  People, families and communities celebrate their strengths and practice empathy and compassion – personal and collective. Other people believe in their strengths and capacity for healing.  Communities, institutions and services support people and families to grow and heal.  Have hope, purpose and autonomy People, families and communities have a sense of purpose and meaning, are hopeful about the future and have the resources and autonomy to make it happen.  Their voices, perspective and opinions are heard and respected and they can exercise agency to pursue their goals, dreams and aspirations.  Communities of belonging, such as rainbow communities and mental health consumer communities, have agency, trust and resources to develop solutions for themselves to address challenges they face.

Draft outcomes framework

The six areas of wellbeing are overlapping and interconnected. The ‘for everyone’ and ‘for Māori as tangata whenua’ sections should not be read as direct translations. They represent related concepts of wellbeing from different world-views. ‘For everyone in Aotearoa’ also includes Māori.

Our vision: Tū tangata mauri ora, flourishing together.

This will be achieved when all tangata/people, whānau/families and hāpori/communities in Aotearoa...

For Māori as tangata whenua

Whakaaetanga (acceptance) and manaakitanga (love and compassion)

Whānau and communities are culturally strong and express and live awhi mai, awhi atu (reciprocal support); whānau thrive through the practical expression of ritenga Māori (Māori customary rituals), tikanga Māori (Māori philosophy and customary practices) and mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge). 

Oranga (wellbeing)

Whānau and communities enjoy pae ora (healthy futures) which includes wai Ora (healthy environments), mauri ora (healthy individuals) and whānau ora (healthy families). 

Whānau and community hauora (health) needs are met, and unfair differences are eliminated. Equitable health outcomes are the norm as one enabler of pae ora.

Rangatiratanga (autonomy), mana motuhake (authority) and whakaute (respect)

Whānau legal, human, cultural and other rights framed by Te Tiriti o Waitangi are protected and privileged. Rights are also recognised and framed by te ao Māori (the Māori world), which includes recognition and application of te ao Māori interpretations of Lore - intergenerational ‘tikanga’ (practices and behaviour) passed down by tupuna (ancestors).

Communities benefit from whānau rights being upheld.

Whanaungatanga (connection and belonging)

Whānau thrive in environments of arohatanga (the practice of love); and enjoy the benefits of collective flourishing. This supports the best possible intergenerational kaupapa and whakapapa (genealogy) whānau, hāpori, hapū and iwi relationships.

Māori attain and maintain relationships, enabling kin and communities to strengthen ties between one another.

Unity through active whakawhanaungatanga is honoured.

Wairuatanga (spirituality) and manawaroa (resilience)

The mauri (life-force) and wairua (spirit and essence) of tangata, whānau, hapū, hāpori and iwi is ever-increasing intergenerationally. Māori have a recognised sense of identity, uniqueness and belonging.

Taonga Māori are restored and Māori have a unique relationship and spiritual connection to the taiao (environment), their whenua (land), whakapapa (genealogy) and whānau.

Rangatiratanga (autonomy), mana motuhake (authority) and whakanuitanga (celebration and honouring)

Māori exercise their authority and autonomy to flourish.

Whānau have hope and the resources they need to determine their own futures.

Māori can apply rangatiratanga in their communities, expressed through autonomy, leadership and participation.

For everyone in Aotearoa

Are safe and nurtured

People, families and communities are cohesive; they enjoy close, nurturing and caring relationships that are bound by kindness, respect and aroha (love).

People have a sense of security and belonging in a family and social group, and can form meaningful relationships. Where people experience disconnection, they are enabled to reconnect with themselves, their family, whānau and communities.

People and families feel secure, safe and accepted – individually and together - and live in, work in and visit safe, inclusive places.

People have the economic resources needed to provide for their children, grandchildren, and other dependants.

Are healthy

People and families enjoy their best possible level of health and experience equity of health.

People and families have what they need to be healthy and feel supported to regain or retain their wellness across their life course.

This includes (amongst other things) access to healthy kai (food), healthy and safe homes, safe physical activity and economic security.

Communities are healthy places to live.

Have their rights and dignity upheld

People and families have their rights upheld, and are treated with dignity and in ways that reflect a just and fair society.

People and families can fully participate in their communities and broader society and are able to live free from all forms of racism, stigma, discrimination, such as, homophobia, biphobia, transphobia, sexism, ableism, sanism, ageism and xenophobia.

Rights framed by Te Tiriti o Waitangi, other New Zealand law and international commitments are protected and privileged.

Are connected and contributing

All people, families and communities are valued. People are able to contribute in meaningful ways to thriving communities, and be recognised for their contributions in their chosen roles across education, employment, volunteering, parenting and/or caregiving. Lifelong learning is a right not a privilege.

People and families are celebrated for their diversity and are connected to their culture, language, beliefs, religion and/or spirituality, which supports self-determined wellbeing. This includes the freedom to express and enjoy their identity in ways that are relevant and meaningful.

People and families experience connection to the natural world, and exercise kaitiakitanga (guardianship) to care for the environment for future generations.

Are resilient and can heal and grow

People, families and communities are optimistic and resilient, and enjoy emotional wellbeing and freedom from addiction. They have the skills, knowledge and support they need to cope with and bounce back from adversity.

People and families are able to experience and manage a range of emotions, and experience growth and healing.

People, families and communities celebrate their strengths and practice empathy and compassion – personal and collective. Other people believe in their strengths and capacity for healing.

Communities, institutions and services support people and families to grow and heal.

Have hope, purpose and autonomy

People, families and communities have a sense of purpose and meaning, are hopeful about the future and have the resources and autonomy to make it happen.

Their voices, perspective and opinions are heard and respected and they can exercise agency to pursue their goals, dreams and aspirations.

Communities of belonging, such as rainbow communities and mental health consumer communities, have agency, trust and resources to develop solutions for themselves to address challenges they face.

Draft outcomes framework for Pacific people

The following image and text is an example of how the outcomes framework can, in the future, be flexible to describe wellbeing for priority groups. This provides a Pacific peoples example.

Are safe and nurtured Pacific peoples and families are able to thrive in the community as they maintain their identity and relationships with one another, family, land and environment.   Values and beliefs of Pacific peoples and families continue to evolve given their growing diversity.   Pacific communities maintain their cohesion and cultural integrity with strong relationships.   Are healthy Within a Pacific world-view, Pacific peoples and families live longer in good health.  Pacific families can afford and have access to healthy food, affordable quality housing and live in safe and connected environments.   Pacific peoples and families feel supported to make independent and informed decisions about their health within a culturally appropriate environment and networks of support.  Have their rights and dignity upheld Pacific peoples and families feel their identity, cultural norms and values are respected and are able to contribute to a thriving, flourishing community in Aotearoa.  Pacific peoples and families live free from discrimination and racism.  They are able to maintain and transform their cultural integrity and identity throughout current and future generations of Pacific people in Aotearoa.  Are connected and contributing Pacific peoples and families are ‘ola manuia’ (live well) mentally, spiritually, culturally and socially.  The Pacific culture is celebrated and shared throughout the generations and across the ‘sea of islands’ through expressions of knowledge, beliefs, customs, morals, arts and personality. The Pacific community is recognised for the diversity they bring, their knowledge and unique contribution to Aotearoa.  Pacific peoples and families can freely express and connected to their identity, culture, religion and language.  Are resilient and can heal and grow Pacific peoples and families are able to draw on their strengths and values to respond to the significant stressors and adversities that impact on their community.  This may include a family and/or faith-based approach to lead resilient lives.  The family (āiga, kāiga, magafaoa, kōpū tangata, vuvale, fāmili) is fundamental to resilient Pacific peoples and communities.  Their holistic worldviews, spirituality- and community- oriented approach to life remains central to their resilience and wellbeing.    Have hope, purpose and autonomy Pacific peoples and families lead interdependent lives with one another and their communities in Aotearoa and across the ‘sea of islands’.  Pacific peoples and families have hope and faith to lead lives that serve their family, community and identity.

Draft outcomes framework for Pacific people

Are safe and nurtured

Pacific peoples and families are able to thrive in the community as they maintain their identity and relationships with one another, family, land and environment. 

Values and beliefs of Pacific peoples and families continue to evolve given their growing diversity. 

Pacific communities maintain their cohesion and cultural integrity with strong relationships. 

Are healthy

Within a Pacific world-view, Pacific peoples and families live longer in good health.

Pacific families can afford and have access to healthy food, affordable quality housing and live in safe and connected environments. 

Pacific peoples and families feel supported to make independent and informed decisions about their health within a culturally appropriate environment and networks of support.

Have their rights and dignity upheld

Pacific peoples and families feel their identity, cultural norms and values are respected and are able to contribute to a thriving, flourishing community in Aotearoa.

Pacific peoples and families live free from discrimination and racism.  They are able to maintain and transform their cultural integrity and identity throughout current and future generations of Pacific people in Aotearoa.

Are connected and contributing

Pacific peoples and families are ‘ola manuia’ (live well) mentally, spiritually, culturally and socially.

The Pacific culture is celebrated and shared throughout the generations and across the ‘sea of islands’ through expressions of knowledge, beliefs, customs, morals, arts and personality. The Pacific community is recognised for the diversity they bring, their knowledge and unique contribution to Aotearoa.

Pacific peoples and families can freely express and connected to their identity, culture, religion and language.

Are resilient and can heal and grow

Pacific peoples and families are able to draw on their strengths and values to respond to the significant stressors and adversities that impact on their community.  This may include a family and/or faith-based approach to lead resilient lives.

The family (āiga, kāiga, magafaoa, kōpū tangata, vuvale, fāmili) is fundamental to resilient Pacific peoples and communities.  Their holistic worldviews, spirituality- and community- oriented approach to life remains central to their resilience and wellbeing.  

Have hope, purpose and autonomy

Pacific peoples and families lead interdependent lives with one another and their communities in Aotearoa and across the ‘sea of islands’.

Pacific peoples and families have hope and faith to lead lives that serve their family, community and identity. 

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